Caesar had been the leader of the Populist party from the beginning, as if by hereditary right

2022-04-27 0 By

The Republican opposition offered forgiveness, but there was no reconciliation.They were generally dissatisfied with the new situation and resented the extraordinary rulers.There was no longer, indeed, an opportunity for open political revolt;In the course of the title discussion, Caesar was proclaimed king, and several opposition tribunals interfered in their demonstration, and won the martyr’s crown of the Republican Party;But republicanism betrayals even more emphatically opposition and hidden demagoguery and intrigue.No one clapped when the emperor came out into the public.Satire and satirical poems were popular, full of caustic and pertinent popular derision of the new monarch’s administration.The popular title of opposition pamphleteers was the praise of Cato, and their work gained a more appreciative readership because literature was no longer free.At that time Caesar, it is true, attacked the Republicans in their way;He himself and the more intelligent of his followers gave anti-Cato answers to Cato literature; Republican and Caesar writers fought over the dead Udican hero, as the Trojans and the Greeks fought over the corpse of Patroclus;But it was self-evident that the public was overwhelmingly Republican in this struggle, and Caesar was defeated.They had no choice but to use intimidation against the writer;So in the middle of the exile, some is famous in literature and dangerous people, such as, puebla, uz, ji DE Deus fe gulu, and Mr. Luce, cage, that is more difficult than others acquire the license of the back to Italy at the same time, the opposition’s writers are allowed in Italy, to be reviewed by the actual, because of the terrible punishment is completely optional for weight,So the bondage is all the more embarrassing.The intrigues perpetrated by the defeated party against the government of the new monarch must be described in a related context.Suffice it to say a few things: throughout the Roman Empire.A rebellion between the False Lord and the Republicans was brewing;The flames of civil war, now fanned by Pompeians, now by Republicans, flared here and there;Plots to kill the monarch were frequent in the capital.But these blows could not permanently surround Caesar with a band of soldiers, and it was usually enough to announce a plot that had been uncovered.These indignant men threatened not only him, but his works, and Caesar, with his habit of bold indifference to all matters concerning his personal safety, could not fail to see the grave danger.Nevertheless, in spite of the warnings and admonitions of his friends, and not knowing that even his benevolence could not convert an enemy into a friend, he was very composed, and forgave the great majority of his enemies.It is not the magnanimity of a proud character, nor the tenderness of a weak character; it is the deliberation of a statesman.He thought that if the failed party were absorbed within the state, it would be solved more quickly and cause less damage to the state.If they are exterminated by declaring them public enemies or expelled from foreign countries by means of exile, the solution will be slower and the loss to the state will be greater.As a matter of fact, the Constitutionalist Party consisted not only of the aristocracy, but also of all the free and national elements of the Italian citizen, whom Caesar needed for the attainment of his noble ends;In order to carry out his plan of rejuvenating the country, he needs all the capable, cultured, ancestral, and self-possessed masses that are included in the constitutional Party;In this sense he might well have called the pardon of the enemy the best reward for victory.Therefore, though he had eliminated the most prominent leaders of the failed party, he was generous in granting complete pardons to the second and third classes, especially the younger ones;However, he did not allow them to be sad and passive, and with more or less gentle compulsion he encouraged them to take an active part in the new government and to accept its honours and offices.Henry IV and William of Orange faced their greatest difficulties only after their victories, and so did Caesar.Each revolution of the victors’ by the experience and knowledge, if after the enemy you he would not as sura and cinna is only to be a leader and desire as Henry iv and William of orange, with rich countries polity to replace his party platform will be biased, so, at that time the party factions, regardless of his party and the party of failure, will be united together against the new leader;The larger and finer his conception of his new mission, the more he opposed it.The Friends of constitutionalism and Pompey’s party, though they professed their obedience to Caesar in words, hated the government, or at least the court;The declining Popular party rebelled against Caesar, as soon as it perceived that his ends were not its own;Even Caesar’s own party complained when they found that their leader had established, instead of a mercenary state, a monarchy equal and just to all, and that their share of the spoils would be diminished by the entry of the defeated party.This method of organizing state affairs is not approved by any party, and must be enforced against both the enemy and the party.In a sense Caesar’s own position was more at stake now than it had been before his victory;But what he lost was what the country gained.Due to eliminate the party, and due to not only forgive, and regardless of their political events, make every talented or only a good family of official position, he not only building to achieve domestic for him all of the work force, and each party factions of voluntary or forced to participate in the same job, also the country unconsciously extradition to the new land.But as for this reconciliation, which for the time was only a superficial one, and which united less in attachment to the new situation than in hatred of Caesar, it did not deceive him;He knew that the sharpness of hostile forces is lost by this apparent union, and that only then can a statesman prepare for time, and only time can bury the old in the grave, and make the quarrel more permanent.He didn’t ask who hated him or wanted to stab him.Like any true statesman, he served the people without asking for reward or even their love, sacrificing the favor of his time for the happiness of future generations, and above all asking permission to save and revive his country.To consider how the old situation is transformed into a new one, we must remember that Caesar came not to begin but to finish.Gaius Gracchus had drawn up plans for a new regime suitable to The Times, and his partisans and successors stuck to them, with varying degrees of spirit and achievement, but never wavered.Caesar, as if by hereditary authority, had been the leader of the Party from the beginning, and for thirty years he had always held up the banner of the Party, without changing his colors, or even concealing them;Even as monarch, he was a populist.He accepted without restraint the inheritance of his party, except, of course, the absurd schemes of Catiline and Clodius;He expressed a fierce and even private hatred of both the nobility and the true nobility;When he sticks to the Roman civilian party’s main ideas, such as to improve the situation of debtors, hold overseas colonial, gradually flatten the domestic difference of the rights of the people at all levels, the administrative power from the senate, he monarchy solid and civilian government seldom conflict, so that civilians regime because of a monarchy to achieve complete and implementation.For his monarchy was not a theocratic despotism, as in the East, but that which Gaius Gracchus had set up, and Pericles and Cromwell had set up, and represented the state by those who had the supreme and unbounded confidence of the state.It appears that the ideas on which Caesar’s work is based are not really new;But their realization belongs to him, wherever it is, after all, the main point;Also belong to his achievements, the formulation of plans if you can see the result of a person, will be – for different things, or what kind of people no matter which belongs to the historical period of political color, as long as meet this kind of performance in real life or in sysytem, all in accordance with the big shot and big both more or less understanding of the force, inspire the deep and deep moved and admiration.This has been true in the past and will be true in the future.Here, however, we must assert the tacit assumption of historians everywhere, and we must protest against the habit common to fools and scoundlers of taking the positive and negative aspects of history out of their proper relation and using them as universal terms.In the present case our criticism of Caesar is mistaken for criticism of what is called Caesar’s regime.Indeed, past history should be the teacher of the present;But it does not mean in the vulgar sense that one can find the present state of affairs in the records of the past by turning over the pages of a book, and thus gather symptoms for a political diagnosis, or magic cures for a prescription;The teaching function of past history is only to the extent that the observation of early cultures reveals the inherent conditions of a general civilization, its similar basic forces and their different combinations, and can lead and encourage men to create without imitation.In this sense, the history of Caesar and of the Roman monarchy, great as the architect is, and historical necessity as the work is, is a true scathing criticism of modern despotism that no human hand can write.In the laws of nature, the smallest organism is so much better than the most ingenious machine, that the imperfect regime, so long as it allows free self-determination for the majority of its citizens, is far better than the most wonderful and merciful tyranny;Because the former can develop, so it is alive, the latter does not change, so it is dead.This law of nature was confirmed in the Military monarchy of Rome;And because, under the genius of its founder, and without serious foreign disputes, the monarchy has grown more pure and free than in any other country, this law of nature has been more fully confirmed.Since Caesar, as will be seen below, and as Gibbon has already pointed out, the Roman system has been only superficially united, only mechanically expanded, and its interior, in his time, was completely dead.If, at the beginning of the autocracy, and especially in Caesar’s own mind, there still dwelt the hopeful dream of merging the free development of the people with despotism, the politics of the great emperors of Julius soon gave a terrible indication of the possibility of fire and water being one.Caesar’s work so necessary and useful, not because it’s really benefit mankind itself or may be for the benefit of humanity, but is because in ancient times that on the basis of the slave, representative of the republic, the constitution of the people in the organization, in the face of that after five hundred years of development has become oligarchs autocratic regime, the orthodox city-states military autocratic monarchy is the principle of the peak, of course, is also the lightest scourge.Conclusion If the slave-holding nobles of Virginia and The Carolinas could reach the level of their comrades in Rome in sulla’s day, Caesar’s government would be legitimate there in the spirit of history;This regime, under any other development, would be both a grotesque monster and a tyranny.But though the judgments of history make fools of bad Caesar, and give men occasion for falsehood, history will not allow the true Caesar to be less worthy of his honor.History, too, is a kind of Bible, and if it does not prevent fools from misinterpreting her and the devil from quoting her, she tolerates and rewards both.